Down and Dirty: Destruction Accelerates at Ancient Native Site

This article first appeared on Indian Country Today Media Network in July 2016. For more, see articles below: Gods and Monsters, also ICTMN, and Eve of Destruction, on Rural America In These Times.

Members of the Battle Mountain Band of Te-Moak Western Shoshone visited the Tosawihi Quarries on June 22 to view and pray over the remains of a doctoring trail that leads into and through the sacred site. The trail, which has been declared eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, is a critical feature of a northern Nevada cultural landscape that the Western Shoshone and other tribes have used for at least 10,000 years. 

However, construction of a mining-related power line along the doctoring trail is in the process of obliterating it. Starting about two weeks prior to the June 22 visit shown here, a road has been bulldozed over the spiritual pathway, and a long trench has been gouged across the face of a nearby hillside. 

Battle Mountain Band council member and former chairman Joe Holley said that when tribal members saw what was happening, they were horrified and speechless. “It is so much damage,” Holley said, adding that the extent of the destruction seemed gratuitous. “It feels like they are doing more than necessary to build a power line. Just ripping up the land.” 

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which administers the land the Tosawihi Quarries and the trail sit on, allowed this phase of construction to proceed, despite ongoing long-term litigation over the project. 

The Band’s attorney, Rollie Wilson, of Fredericks, Peebles & Morgan, has told Indian Country Today Media Network that if a full panel of Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals judges does not step in quickly, as the Band has requested in its most recent court filings, an exceptional place that Shoshones have called central to their culture will be entirely destroyed. 

The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) an independent federal agency charged with overseeing the nation’s historical resources, would not comment on the threat. Spokesperson Matt Spangler referred ICTMN to ACHP’s website, which describes the importance of tribal expertise in assessing protection of tribal places, among other topics.

The website also says that the ACHP’s job is “to encourage federal agencies to consider preservation in planning federal projects.” As a result, its recommendations are just that. Indeed, Spangler has also told ICTMN that on the Tosawihi project the ACHP is deferring to the BLM, which is the lead federal agency on the project. At press time, the BLM had not responded to requests for a comment.

“What drives them to constantly deface and destroy?” Holley asked. “That’s so hard for us to understand.” 

Photos courtesy Battle Mountain Band of Te-Moak Western Shoshone; article c. Stephanie Woodard.

Gods and Monsters: Bulldozer Rips Into Ancient Shoshone Sacred Site

This article was first published on Indian Country Today Media Network in July 2016. For more, see Lost Bones, Damage and Harassment at Ancient Sacred Site, also on ICTMN; two posts below this one, you'll find Eve of Destruction, published on Rural America In These Times. 

A bulldozer plows up a doctoring trail in a site Western Shoshone and others have used for more than 10,000 years.
A three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has denied the Te-Moak Band of Western Shoshone’s request for an emergency injunction to stop the destruction of an ancient trail in the Tosawihi Quarries, a 10,000-year-old sacred site. Though a legal appeal and an over-arching lawsuit concerning the entire project are still pending, an international gold-mining consortium’s bulldozer is already at work constructing a power line along the doctoring trail, said the Band’s attorney, Rollie Wilson, of the law firm Fredericks Peebles & Morgan. 

The construction equipment was fired up within days of the court’s June 8 order, according to Wilson. The one-page decision did not detail the court’s reasoning.

Destruction of the doctoring trail, which connects healing places, means irreparable harm to the culture and identity of the Western Shoshone, said Joe Holley, a member of the Band’s council and a former chairman. The Band is now asking for a rehearing by the full court, a legal process that may take several months. Unless the rehearing is granted on an emergency basis, construction is likely to continue, and the trail may well be obliterated, said Wilson. 

The entire cultural landscape, including the doctoring trail and additional related places, is revered by several tribes in addition to the Western Shoshone. The Tosawihi Quarries currently sit on federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which has declared them eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

“To get a rehearing, you have to cite a clear error of law,” said Wilson. “In this case, once properties are deemed eligible for the Historic Register, Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires that you determine whether undertaking like the power line will have an effect on them and then figure out how to mitigate or avoid the effects. BLM, which issued the permit for the power line, along with other mining activities in the Quarries, did not take that final step. They determined the trail eligible, then let the mining company bulldoze right through it.”

BLM documents show that the agency appears to keep the mining consortium’s concerns top of mind. In March 2014, BLM approved the current round of gold mining after a telephone call from the company’s legal counsel to a BLM staffer to advise that the consortium needed the Record of Decision (ROD) for Tosawihi mining activities in time for a quarterly report to investors. Emails with the subject line “urgent” began flashing among BLM employees, warning against delay. 

“They are requesting that the ROD and approval be signed or dated no later than March 31. March 31 is the end of the first quarter,” emailed one BLM staffer. 

Another BLM employee joined in, warning of tribal concerns. Despite the statutory requirement to consider them, the BLM got the ROD signed in time for the quarterly report. 

The Band has engaged in a multi-generational fight to protect the Quarries, Holley said. For decades, BLM has tried to limit recognition of tribal sacred sites in the area, Holley charged; earlier mining activities had scarred much of the landscape and depleted its waters, but the Band has hoped to prevent further destruction, he said. Ted Howard, cultural resources director and member of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, has called the Quarries “the center of our spiritual being.”

“They tell us this power line is only a temporary impact,” Holley said. “But for twenty or thirty years—an entire generation—the line’s presence means we will not be able to practice our culture, religion and spirituality in this important place. We will lose the chance to pass these practices and traditions to the next generation, and that means they will be gone forever. We will lose another piece of our culture, which we are working hard to maintain and which the United States has a trust responsibility to protect.”

Matt Spangler, spokesperson for the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), described it as the “federal agency lead” on the project, but adding that questions of broad tribal trust policy were outside ACHP’s purview. Spangler deferred to the BLM for questions about the effects on the trail and the BLM’s relationship with the mining company. 

At press time, BLM spokesperson Chris Rose said he would have a statement ready within a few days. For its part, the Nevada-based mining company, Carlin Resources, an arm of Toronto-based Waterton Global Mining Company, which is part of a firm headquartered in the Cayman Islands, had not responded to requests for a comment. 

Photographs courtesy Battle Mountain Band of Te-Moak Western Shoshone. Article c. Stephanie Woodard.