Old-time cures, 21st-century science


Published in Prevention magazine in February 2010.

Over the past century, Americans have thoroughly embraced modern pharmaceutical science and the life-saving medicines it has produced. In the process, we’ve relegated to folklore the cures our grandparents relied on. As it turns out, though, that trove is rich with remarkably effective remedies.

In fact, plants still occupy a central position in modern medicine, says Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD, senior attending pharmacist at Massachusetts General Hospital and chief editor of Natural Standard Research Collaboration, which evaluates scientific data on herbs. “Practically all of the most widely used drugs have an herbal origin,” Ulbricht says. “The number-one OTC medication, aspirin, is a synthetic derivative of a plant compound. Opiates, the most prescribed category of generic prescription drugs, are derived from the opium poppy; many statins are based on fungi; and Tamiflu, which we all know nowadays because of the swine-flu scare, originated from Chinese star anise.”

Many recent scientific studies have analyzed the plants that figure prominently in folk medicine. Here are some traditional palliatives that research has confirmed effective, often with strong endorsement for their original use. Because botanical medicines can be powerful, use them only under the direction of a qualified health-care practitioner, says Ulbricht. The only exceptions are common food items, such as onions or parsley, when consumed in natural form and conventional amounts by healthy people.

ONIONS
Tradition says: They have powerful medicinal properties. In Middle Eastern traditional medicine, they’ve long been used to ease diabetes. In ancient Greece, Olympic athletes scarfed down onions and drank their juice and rubbed it on their bodies. In the United States of the early 20th century, an influential medical tract, Homeopathic Materia Medica, by William Boericke, MD, recommended using these members of the Allium plant family to cure respiratory and digestive problems.
Research proves: Onions, or constituents within them such as quercetin, protect against diabetes; asthma and allergies; cardiovascular disease; and cancers, including those of the esophagus, breast, and colon. In fact, eating onions may keep the doctor away even better than apples do. Your body absorbs quercetin — an antioxidant that fights cancer, boosts heart health, and is also anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and anti-hypoglycemic — three times faster from onions than from apples (or from tea, another top source), according to a report for the Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Your heart also benefits from onions’ thiosulfates, or sulfur compounds, which raise good cholesterol and thin the blood.
And it looks like those ancient Olympians had it right: a 2009 study in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism found that quercetin extract increased oxygen uptake and the length of time subjects could ride a stationary bike — meaning onions may well be a perfectly legal performance-enhancing substance.
Onions’ advantages are multiplied when chopped. When their cell walls are disrupted, a series of reactions produces the thiosulfates responsible for both their smell and their cardio-protective benefits, according to Michael Havey, PhD, University of Wisconsin professor of horticulture. “The more colorful the onion, the higher the amount of thiosulfates,” he says. “Red is better than yellow, and yellow better than white.”
Because cooking diminishes the value of the antioxidants and the sulfur compounds, use prepared onions immediately in salads, stir-fries, and other recipes that call for them raw or lightly cooked, Havey advises. “However, there’s no way to quantify how much you should eat daily, because of the variations between types of onions and methods of preparation,” he adds. Bottom line: Make them a regular part of your daily diet, along with plenty of other fruits and vegetables.

PARSLEY
Tradition says: In 1629, botanist and apothecary John Parkinson extolled parsley root in an herbal he prepared for the Queen of England. When “put into broth,” he wrote, the root stimulated urination, opened kidney obstructions, and helped patients pass stones, presumably from the bladder and kidneys. Centuries later, Boericke’s Homeopathic Materia Medica recommended parsley for urinary-tract ailments and menstrual difficulties, as did the Eclectic Materia Medica, a manual created by the Eclectics, a group of U.S. medical doctors who practiced from the mid-1800s to the 1930s and were famous for their research on and use of Native American botanicals.
Of course, after you’ve eaten all those onions, you’ll also need this breath freshener of yore. “The strong smell of onions is quite taken away by the eating of parsley leaves,” counseled Parkinson.
Research proves: The roots (as well as the fruits, which are commonly referred to as “seeds”) work as a diuretic, increasing urine output, according to a review of animal studies published in World Journal of Urology in 2002. The German Commission E, a government body, has approved parsley root for use as a diuretic.
Parsley contains potent phytoestrogens as well — comparable to those in soy, according to the Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin in 2000 — which may be why traditional healers found the plant helped ease menstrual trouble.
Parsley leaves have fewer benefits than the roots or seeds but are still good for your urinary tract, says Eric Yarnell, ND, assistant professor of botanical medicine at Bastyer University and lead author of the 2002 World Journal of Urology study. So, munch on that green sprig decorating your restaurant meal rather than setting it aside. At home, add chopped parsley leaves to omelets, salads, and hot dishes. Parsley root and seed are available in extract, tincture, and whole-seed form.
Finally, keep in mind that Parkinson’s breath-freshening advice works just as well today, thanks to parsley’s odor-zapping chlorophyll.

STINGING NETTLE
Tradition says: It relieves pain. Practitioners of folk medicine still use the irritating chemicals released by the fresh leaves of stinging nettle, or Urtica dioica, to ease the discomfort of arthritis. Ethnobotanist Linda Different Cloud-Jones, MSE and a Montana State University doctoral candidate, reports that elders on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, which straddles North and South Dakota, tap their swollen knuckles with bunches of this perennial herb. “In summer, you may see older people sitting on their front porches doing this,” she says.
Research proves: Arthritis sufferers who applied stinging nettles once a day for 30 seconds effectively relieved their discomfort by the second day, according to a paper in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. After a week of treatments, their pain relief was “significantly greater” than that of participants who used a placebo; the greater degree of relief lasted into the next week, during which no treatments were applied by either group. Different Cloud-Jones explains that when applied topically, fresh nettles produce a substance that blocks your ability to perceive pain in the problem area.
For a topical remedy, use a glove to hold a small bunch of the fresh plants; tap them lightly on the affected area. The result is not a long-lasting allergic reaction, like that of poison oak or ivy, but rather an immediate tingling sensation followed by a temporary, localized rash. (These side effects were deemed acceptable by most of the study participants described above.) You can grow nettles yourself with seeds from horizonherbs.com; since the plant is a common weed, you might find it while hiking (you’ll know if you do), or you can ask greenmarket farmers if they have any. Don’t apply to broken skin, as you will cause further irritation.
Boiling or steaming nettles removes their prickle, so they can also be consumed as a spinach-like dish. When taken internally, studies show, they appear to be beneficial for the genitourinary system —preventing prostate enlargement, urinary tract infections, and kidney stones. Because the plant contains natural antihistamines, when taken under the supervision of a knowledgeable practitioner, it appears to open up bronchial passages and relieve allergies. It is available in tea, capsule, or extract form.

HAWTHORN
Tradition says: From China to Europe to Native America, herbalists have long used hawthorn’s leaves, white spring flowers, and tart red fall berries to make heart tonics, as well as remedies for acne and sore throat. Scientists date the use of this shrub to at least the 1st century, when famed physician of Ancient Rome, Disocorides, wrote of it in De Materia Medica, which became the most influential medical treatise of the next 16 centuries. In Europe and America, we have also long consumed hawthorn in the form of jam and jelly. 
Research proves: Antioxidants and other compounds in hawthorn may strengthen the heart and prevent or reduce the symptoms of coronary artery disease. In extensive analyses done by Cochrane Research in 2008, hawthorn extract increased the heart’s strength and exercise tolerance, diminished its oxygen needs, and reduced cardiac patients’ shortness of breath and fatigue. Yarnell describes a case in which he added hawthorn to a multi-herb preparation with which he was treating a man in his late 70s who had high blood pressure, among other problems. “We quickly had him off all his blood-pressure medications,” recalls Yarnell.
Hawthorne is available as a tea, tincture, capsules, and solid extract. Overall, according to Natural Standard Research Collaboration, it appears to be safe and well tolerated by most people when used under medical supervision. You should not, however, use it if you are taking another heart medication, such as a beta-blocker or ACE-inhibitor, as it may alter its effect.

LEMON BALM
Tradition says: This lemon-scented plant, a member of the mint family, was used during the Middle Ages to banish anxiety, boost memory, aid sleep and digestion, and treat insect bites and wounds. It is “good against the biting of venomous beasts, comforts the heart, and driveth away all melancholy and sadnesse,” wrote Elizabethan-era herbalist John Gerard in 1597.
Research proves: Got a test, presentation, or other stress-filled occasion coming up? As in days of old, lemon balm may well help you get a good night’s sleep ahead of time and keep you calm and focused at the moment of truth, says a 2003 article in Neuropsychopharmacology. Research suggests this plant is effective in extreme situations, too. Four weeks of lemon balm aromatherapy cut agitation in patients with severe dementia, reports a 2002 study in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, while four months of treatment with an alcohol tincture of the plant significantly reduced dementia and agitation in Alzheimer’s patients, according to a 2003 article in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.
Lemon balm also appears to regulate an overactive thyroid (Grave’s disease). It also fights bacteria and viruses; recent studies, including a 2008 report in Phytomedicine, indicate that it can be used topically to treat oral and genital herpes lesions.
If you plant this easy-to-grow perennial in your garden, you can gather leaves to make a hot or iced tea anytime you wish. Lemon balm is also available in extract, tincture, oil, and bulk-tea form. If you wish to use it topically, you can use an OTC cream or dab on the tea with cotton balls.
Since lemon balm has a calming effect, be wary of using it if you take sedatives or must drive a car or operate heavy machinery. It may affect thyroid production, so don’t use it if you take any thyroid medication

CAYENNE
Tradition says: Columbus is credited with transporting cayenne peppers — also called chili peppers, after their Aztec name, “chil” —from the New World to the Old. Consumed in the Americas for some 9,000 years, the fiery-flavored pods reminded the explorer of black pepper, a highly prized, and pricey, spice in Europe at the time. The easy-to-grow chili quickly assumed a central role in traditional cookery and remedies worldwide; folk medical practitioners used it for everything from pain relief to aphrodisiacs. The Eclectics describe it as a heart stimulant, digestive aid, and cold and fever remedy that also helped recovering alcoholics get through the discomfort of withdrawal.
Research proves: Red carpet alert! Beyonce, Angelina Jolie, and other celebrities are reportedly shedding pounds because they’ve added cayenne to their diets. New science supports their claims: Studies indicate that the pepper’s effect on digestion assists in weight control. According to a 2009 paper in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN), compounds related to capsaicin — the constituent that gives chilies their heat — helped subjects lose abdominal fat.
The sizzling spice also appears to control blood sugar. Study participants who ate a lunch containing capsaicin had higher blood levels of a sugar-regulating hormone and less ghrelin, the so-called hunger hormone, than those who had a bland meal, reported The European Journal of Nutrition last year.
Chili peppers can be enjoyed in innumerable fresh and hot dishes. They may be used fresh, in powdered forms including paprika, and in prepared salsas and hot sauces like Tabasco.
Capsaicin is also well known as an ingredient of preparations that ease muscle aches, postoperative discomfort, and arthritis. By reducing the amount of a certain neurotransmitter, it offers relief by temporarily interfering with pain messages to the brain. For pain relief, follow package instructions on the OTC topical ointments and creams available. Do not apply to tender or broken skin.

PLANTAIN
Tradition says: Plantain, a low-growing oval-leafed plant that is found all over the globe (and not to be confused with the banana-like fruit of the same name) is an effective remedy for skin ailments. Hildegard von Bingen, the renowned 12th century Benedictine abbess, healer, composer, and eventually saint, suggested applying the leaves to insect bites in her medical treatise, Physica. In addition to applying plantain poultices to insect stings, wounds, burns, infections, and more, Cherokees and other Native American tribes have drunk plaintain tea for its laxative effect.
Research proves: Plantain, Plantago major, owes its effectiveness for skin ailments to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties, according to scientists from Norway and Brazil. Different Cloud-Jones uses it on the Standing Rock reservation. “I find that mashing it up with water and applying it as a poultice dramatically reduces pain and blistering,” she says.
The herb’s soothing effects work internally, too: A type of plantain seed called psyllium provides the mucilage that makes Metamucil and other laxatives work.
Look in your own backyard for the plant, a weed found in lawns across the country. The young leaves have a pliant texture and mild flavor, and Different Cloud-Jones gets their good effects by putting them in salads as well as brewing them as a tea. Consult your practitioner about how much tea or fresh plant material you should consume, or you may discover for yourself plantain’s laxative properties.

LICORICE
Tradition says: It’s great for treating digestive and respiratory problems. The scientific family name of this plant, Glycyrrhiza, comes from the Greek for “sweet root.” Because this appetizing herb could be combined with less tasty ones to make them palatable, it came to be known as “the great adjunct” in traditional Chinese medicine. It was so highly esteemed in 17th-century England, it was grown “in great quantitie, even to fill many acres of ground [and is used] for colds, coughs and rheumes and to expectorate flegme,” according to royal botanist Parkinson.
Research proves: When used as a whole herb and under medical supervision, licorice appears to safely ease respiratory and digestive complaints, according to Yarnell. A major component, glycyrrhizin, is also available separately as a powerful medication that can suppress the inflammation of psoriasis and other skin ailments and fight colds and flu, as well as Epstein-Barr, herpes, hepatitis, and HIV infections, according to Yarnell. However, he advises avoiding glycyrrhizin; its side effects include high blood pressure and water retention.
Because of worries over glycyrrhizin, a form of the herb is produced that is stripped of this constituent. Called de-glycyrrhizinated licorice, or DGL, it retains the constituents of the whole plant that have a beneficial effect on the digestive tract. Studies show it reduces heartburn, soothes peptic ulcers, and kills H. pylori, an ulcer-causing bacterium.
“Generally, you should stick with preparations of the whole herb, used for limited periods of time with medical supervision,” says Yarnell. Note that nowadays most licorice candy is flavored with anise, so many of these safety issues do not apply; check the label to be sure.

c. Stephanie Woodard.